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Abbreviations post ported over


Moderator: Nads

Abbreviations post ported over

PostAuthor: Rdwh » Mon Oct 15, 2012 11:34


F1 hybrid is a term used in genetics and selective breeding. F1 stands for Filial 1, the first filial generation of Fish and other animal offspring resulting from a cross mating of different parental types. Please note F1 status can also result in the wild by the offspring of very different parental types which produce a new, uniform variety with very different or similar characteristics from either of both parents. Generally in fish breeding, usually the parents are two closely related fish species, while in plant and other animal genetics those parents usually are two inbred lines. Mules for example are F1 hybrids between horse and donkey.

TB stands for Tank Bred. These fish are not wild and may have different characteristics that differ from wild fish such as behaviour traits - I have noticed and particularly regarding aggression of any tank bred fish I have kept is way higher than the wild fish when they are known in the wild for being calmer.

Wild fish I have had tend to be more slimer than TB variety, & feeding habits etc again are higher compared to the wild fish, this does not mean though that you should increase the feeding level in any way, I would generally advise all to try and mirror the feeding habits of wild fish, in a way your teaching them how to eat properly in my view.

GB fish are tank bred in Germany and not uk.

ETB - European Tank Bred.

WC - No this is not the toilet or loo in your local night club, this simply stands for Wild Caught fish. If your looking for that... how should I say full pedigree fish, this is the best way to go.


Defines how acidic or alkaline the water is. pH comes from the French word hydrogèn, and means "hydrogen power" or Potential Hydrogen.

It equates to the amount of hydrogen (H+) and hydroxide (OH-) ions are dissolved in a solution. The more hydrogen ions there are, the more acidic the water is and the lower the pH is. A solution that has equal concentrations of hydroxide and hydrogen is termed neutral with a pH value of 7. A higher concentration of hydroxide ions would return a value above 7 or alkaline.

A higher concentration of hydrogen ions would return a value below 7 or acidic. The pH scale is whats classified as logarithmic, in other words, each step up or down is 10 times that of the previous one, hence the importance of gradual change. A pH of 6 is ten times more acidic than a pH of 7. A pH of 5 is a 100 times more acidic than 7 and so on. African chiclids levels of pH should be around 8.4.


This stands for Carbonate hardness or temporary hardness. kH measures the buffering capacity or the ability to absorb and neutralize added acid without major changes to pH. Think of the buffering capacity as a big sponge, the higher the buffering, the bigger the sponge.

How much buffering does your tank need? The higher the kH (the bigger the sponge), the more resistant to pH changes your water will be. A tank's kH should be high enough to prevent large pH swings over time. If your kH is below roughly 4.5 dH, you should pay special attention to your tank's pH (e.g., testing periodically) until you get a feel for how stable your pH is going to be.

Buffering is both good and bad. On the good side, the nitrogen cycle in our tanks produces nitric acid (nitrate). If we don’t have buffering (kH), the pH will drop over time. Sufficient buffering will keep the pH stable. On the bad side, hard water almost always has a large buffering capacity and if the pH is to high for your fish, this large buffering capacity will make it more difficult to lower the pH if and when required i.e. maybe during a NH3 spike.

Buffering is sometimes referred to as "alkalinity" but should not be confused with "alkaline". Alkalinity refers to buffering and alkaline refers to a solution that is base rather than acid (pH).
Aquariums with a low kH will require more attention to water changes to control the nitrate (NO3) which has a tendency for helping the pH to drop in your tank.


General hardness (GH) refers to the dissolved concentration primarily of magnesium and calcium ions. Other ions can contribute to water hardness but are usually insignificant to mosts needs and difficult to measure. When fish are said to prefer soft'' or hard' water, it is gH and not kH that is being referred to.

gH will not directly affect pH although "hard" water is generally alkaline due to some interaction of gH and kH.
Incorrect gH will affect the transfer of nutrients and waste products through cell membranes and can affect egg fertility, proper functioning of internal organs such as kidneys and growth. Now most fish and plants can successfully adapt to local gH conditions, although breeding may be impaired and maybe play part of the reason why sam has noticed a change in his breeding habits.

Most test kits measure gH or general hardness in German degrees hardness or 1dH, which is equal to 17.9 mg/L. Since mg/L is equal to ppm (parts per million) simply multiply the degrees 1dH times 17.9 if you prefer to work with ppm. The number one resource centre on Malawi Cichlids.
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